Hittite… The Civilization that shaped human history…
The Hittites occupied the ancient region of Anatolia (also known as Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey) prior to 1700 BCE, developed a culture apparently from the indigenous Hatti people, and expanded their territories into an empire. The Hittite Empire reached great heights during the mid-1300s BCE, when it spread across Asia Minor, into the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia and had become one of the dominant powers of the Middle East. Hittite was written with a cuneiform script adapted from a version of Akkadian cuneiform from northern Syria. The Hittites are also famous for producing the first written constitution and an advanced criminal code. The Hittites ruled over their kingdom through government officials with independent authority over various branches of government. One military engagement the Hittites are famous for is the Battle of Kadesh against the Egyptian pharaoh Ramesses II’s army in 1274 BCE. This battle is especially important because both sides claimed victory, which led to the first known peace treaty in the history of the world, in 1258 BCE. After 1180 BCE, amid general turmoil in the Levant associated with the sudden arrival of the Sea Peoples, the kingdom disintegrated into several independent “Neo-Hittite” city-states.
Hittite sun disk and course, cuneiform tablets,, lion, sphinx and monumental human statues, discovered at Boğazköy and Alacahöyük (in modern Turkey) have yielded important information about their political organization, social structure, economy, and religion.
Aslantepe Gate Lion Statue: In Hittite settlements, it is commonly used lion, Sphinx or monumental human statues at the gates of the city entrances to protect the city from the enemies and to decorate the monumental road. Arslantepe is the current name of the Hittite city site of Malidiya (Malizi, Melid, Assyrian Meliddu) from where the nearby modern city of Malatya got its name. Arslantepe (arslan=lion and tepe=hill) gets its name from the lion statues excavated at the location. The lion statues are located on either side of the entrance door and are decorated in low relief on stone.